R P Stone Clinic
Kidney stone treatment by Flexible Ureteroscopy / RIRS
No Hole, No Cut, Day care procedure, Safest way for removal of Kidney Stones
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    Panipat Office
    R.P.Stone Clinic Pvt. Ltd. SCF – 30-31, Sector – 11, Near Angel Pime Mall, HUDA Colony, Panipat – 132103,Haryana, India.
    Tel: +91-9896341174
    Fax: +91-8607043191



What is a kidney stone and how it is formed?

  • Normally, urine contains many dissolved substances.
  • At times, some material may become concentrated in the urine and form solid crystals.
  • These crystals can grow and unite to form a stone.
  • Stone formed in the kidneys are called kidney stones.
  • Ureteral stone is a kidney stone that has left the kidney and moved down to the ureter.

What causes kidney stones & what are the risk factors for forming this ?

Kidney stone disease is more common in males than females. The male-female ratio is approximately 2:1. The exact cause of kidney stone formation is not known, but there are number of possible factors and connections leading to kidney stone formation.

  • Family history of kidney stones disease.
  • Urinary tract infection can lead to kidney stone disease.
  • High intake of Non vegetarian food may lead to kidney stone disease.
  • High salt intake may have higher incidence of kidney stone formation.
  • Low water intake may be associated with high incidence of kidney stone formation.
  • Decreased amount of urinary citrate also can increase the kidney stone formation.
  • Intake of high oxalate diet such as green leafy vegetables, nuts and chocolate help in formation of kidney stones.
  • Certain diseases like Crohns disease, short bowel syndrome etc. increase the incidence of kidney stone formation.
  • Secondary stones may form in patients with obstruction to urinary passage like in prostate enlargement or uretheral stricture etc.
  • Kidney stones are also linked to hyperparathyroidism, an endocrine disorder that result in more calcium in the urine.
  • Rare hereditary disorders such as
    1. Cystinuria can lead to formation of cystine stones in the kidneys.
    2. Primary hyperoxaluria can also lead to kidney stone formation.
  • Certain conditions like
    1. Hypercalciuria of different types can also lead to increased incidence of kidney stone formation.
    2. Hyperuricosuria is also associated with increased incidence of kidney stone formation.

What are the different types of kidney stones?

  • The most common Kidney stones are calcium oxalate kidney stones followed by calcium phosphate kidney stones.
  • A less common type of kidney stone is caused by infection in the urinary tract. This type of kidney stone is called a struvite or infection stone.
  • Much less common are the pure uric acid kidney stones.
  • Much rarer is the hereditary type of kidney stones called cystine stones and even more rare are those linked to other hereditary disorders.
  • There are number of other stones also which form less than 5% of total kidney stones.

What are the signs and symptoms of kidney stones?

The usual symptoms are: –

  • Severe pain in the back radiating to the front
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Difficulty in passing urine
  • Blood in urine
  • Dull ache often confused with the muscular pain.
  • If the stone is in the lower end of ureter, patient may feel frequent sensation of incomplete urination.
  • Fever & chills, if there is associated infection.
  • Occasionally kidney stones may be painless or silent stones Silent stones are dangerous and may cause irreversible damage to the kidney.

How are kidney stones diagnosed?

  • Plain X-Ray KUB
    • Simple
    • Provides good information about kidney stones
  • Ultrasound Examination
    • Operator Oriented
    • Easy & Quick
  • Intravenous Pyelogram
    • Time consuming
    • Requires contrast and may need preparation
  • NCCT-KUB ( Non Contrast CT)
    • Gold Standard
    • Quick
    • No preparation is required
    • High efficiency
  • CT Urography:- This requires contrast & includes NCCT KUB. CT urography provides additional information about the urinary tract by outlinig Kidney, Ureter & Urinary bladder.This test may be required in some cases.
  • In addition to this, there are number of Blood & Urine tests which are required.
  • 24 hours urine may be required for estimating the daily output of urinary calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid, sodium, creatinine etc.

What is the treatment for kidney stones?

Spontaneous passage (Approx. 80% of stones pass out spontaneously) depending upon the size of stones. Less than 5mm stones have a higher incidence of spontaneous passage. As the size of stone increases the chances of spontaneous passage decrease.
The surgical intervention includes following options: –

Do kidney stones reoccur ?

Recurrence of Kidney stone is very common approaching 50% in 10 years, however it can be reduced by taking preventive measures.

Can kidney stones be prevented?

  • Drink plenty of fluids so as to produce more than 2 litres of urine everyday.
  • Avoid non vegetarian diet.
  • Take low salt diet
  • Avoid high oxalate diet (green leafy vegetables, chocolates & nuts etc.)
  • Take plenty of orange juice and lemonade.
  • There are number of other measures which can be used to prevent kidney stone formation in different types of patients. One can consult a Urologist for more measures.

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